区块链十年:从哪里来,到哪里去

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所属分类:区块链

YIBITEBIWEIQIZHIDEQUKUAILIANJISHUZHUANYANJIANYIJINGZOUGUOSHINIANLE,RENMENCHANGGANKAI“SHINIANYIDAIREN”,DUIYUXIANZAIZHEIGESANNIANJIUHUIYOUDAIGOUDEKUAISUFAZHANSHIDAI,SHINIANSIHUYIJINGHENJIULE。WOJIECHUQUKUAILIANDAGAIYINIANSHIJIAN,JUSHUOZAIZHEIGELINGYUSANNIANJIUSHIZISHENHUOZHEZHUANJIALE,KEJIAN,ZHEIGELINGYUJINGUANYOUSHINIANLISHI,QUEHAICHAXIEJILEI,TONGYANGSHINIANZUOYOULICHENGDEYUNJISUAN,MUQIANYIJINGSHI“PUTIANGAIDI”LE。SUIRANYOUZHUDUOBUJINRENYI,DANWOYIRANJUEDEZHEISHIGEYOUQU、YOUXIANGXIANGLIDELINGYU,SUOYI,WOBAZIJITONGGUOZHEIYINIANXUEXIDELAIDEDUIQUKUAILIANDECUQIANRENSHIZHENGLICHULAIYUDAJIAYIQITAOLUNTAOLUN。WOSHIGEYEWUJIAGOUSHEJIRENYUAN,SUOYI,WODUIQUKUAILIANDELIJIEBIJIAOPIANZHONG“YEWU”HE“JIAGOU”。

一、我所认识的比特币

作为开山鼻祖,比特币是所有接触区块链的人一定要了解的,尤其是技术人员。不去了解比特币、以太坊,也就不会给技术插上想象力的翅膀,那样还不如直接研究分布式系统更实际。我个人对比特币的设计思路总结如下:区块链十年:从哪里来,到哪里去

 

按照中本聪自己在白皮书中的说法,他单纯是在设计一个点对点的电子现金交易系统,为此需要确保交易安全和资金安全,要确保不能“双花”、不能“乱花”。通过UTXO模型和区块链的技术保证不会出现“双花”,也使历史记录的可信性获得提高;通过非对称加密确保你的“钱”只能自己花,不会被别人花掉。通过工作量证明保证账本唯一性,再通过经济手段“制约”算力强人不去作恶。这方面的讨论很多了,本文也不赘述。反复读白皮书,感受最深的其实是对专一目标的极客追求和架构设计上的平衡,中本聪只想实现一个点对点的电子现金交易系统,为了安全,他选择做出效率的牺牲,所以,据说BM要提高交易效率时,他批评BM不懂比特币。设计上,中本聪没打算支持他这个系统目标以外的任何应用,也即,不提供更多的可扩展余地,因为这一方面会引入对电子现金系统而言既不必要又可能致命的各种“缺陷”,又会破坏比特币高度精简的数据结构,比特币为了应对其对存储的压力,几乎把数据需求压缩到最低。越简单越安全,而这个对电子现金系统,特别是一个期望无人维护、自动运行的电子现金系统来讲,恰恰是可靠性、安全性和公信力的基础。后边有不少尝试对比特币进行的改造、扩展都以失败告终,其实也说明了设计上的刚性。如果不能很好理解比特币设计的初衷和它加给自己的局限,去任意拓展想象力,结果恐怕不会太好。设计目标和约束会决定系统的特点与适用范围,如果扩大适用范围,也必须对目标和约束进行修改。以太坊就是这么干的。

二、我所认识的以太坊

YITAIFANGSHIVSHEN2013NIANTUICHUDE,YUZHONGBENCONGBUTONGDESHI,TASHIZHEIGELINGYUKEYIJIANDAOZHENSHENDE“DASHEN”。YITAIFANGQISHIYETINGFUZADE,BUGUOCONGWOZHEIGEYEWUJIAGOURENYUANDESHIJIAOLAIKAN,WOJUEDEYITAIFANGDEZHENGTILUOJIRUXIA:

区块链十年:从哪里来,到哪里去

 

 

GUOYUJIANDANLE?YEXUBA。VSHENZAIYITAIFANGBAIPISHUZHONGXIANGXIPOUXILEBITEBISHEJI,TICHULESIGEZHUYAOBUZU:BUZHICHITULINGWANBEI、ZHUANGTAISHAO、QUKUAIMANG、JIAZHIMANG。WOJISHUDAOXINGBUSHEN,SUOYI,JUEDEHOULIANGGEBUSHISHENMEDAWENTI。QIANLIANGGEZEYUSHEJIMUBIAOHEYUESHUYOUGUAN,ZHONGBENCONGZHIXIANGZUOYIGEDIANDUIDIANDEDIANZIXIANJINXITONG,MEIXIANGZHICHIQITAYINGYONG,NEIMETULINGWANBEI、GENGDUODEZHUANGTAIDUITAERYANJIUMEISHENMEYIYI,“XIANJIN”BUSHIZAINIDOULIJIUSHIZAIWODOULI,BENLAIYEBUXUYAONEIMEDUOZHUANGTAI。VSHENXIANGZUODEJIUMEIZHEIMEJIANDANLE,JUSHUOTAGENCHUSHITUANDUIGONGTONGXIANGCHULE“SHIJIEJISUANJI”ZHEIGEGAINIAN,TULINGWANBEIHEZHUANGTAIKUOZHANDUIYUTAERYANJIUSHIBIBEIDE。TAXIWANGYITAIFANGNENGZAIBITEBIZHEIZHONG“QUXINREN”JIZHISHANGFAZHANCHUGENGDUODEYINGYONG,BAOKUOFENBUSHIZIZHIZUZHI(DAO)。SUOYI,BITEBIBAIPISHUMEIZENMETANYINGYONG,YINWEITADEXITONGMUBIAOHENDANYI,SHENZHIMINGQUESHUOYOUXIEDONGXIJIUGAIYIKAOLIANXIACHULI;YITAIFANGDEBAIPISHUSHANGJIUJIANGLEHENDUOYINGYONG,YINWEITAXIWANGGOUZAOYIGE“XINSHIJIE”,ZHEIGEXIANGFAVSHENZAIJIESHOUGUOCAIFANGZHONGYEDUOCIBIAODAGUO。JIUGONGSHILUOJIERYAN,BITEBIZHISHIQUERENQIANMINGHEYIBIJIAOYIZAILISHISHANGCUNZAIQIEMEIYOUBEIQIYONGYUQITAJIAOYI;YITAIFANGJIUFUZALE,TAYAOQUERENYIDUANDAIMALUOJIDEYUNXINGJIEGUO,YEJICHENGLEBITEBIDEGONGSHISILU,JIUSHIRENSHOUYIBENZHANG、RENRENDOUYANZHENG,ZHEIJIUSHIDAIMALUOJIBUNENGTAIGUOFUZA,FOUZEHUIYOUJIEDIANYUNXINGBULE,XIAOLVTAIDIYEHUIYINGXIANGGONGSHIDEDACHENG。BITEBISUIRANXIAOLVDI,DANSHIXITONGYONGTUDANYI,XIGUANLEYEJIURENLE;YITAIFANGJIDAJIACHASHANGLECHIBANG,DANSHIQUESHISHIZAIZAIDIGANJUEDAO“DIXINYINLI”TAIDA,KAIWANXIAODIJIANG,YITAIFANGQISHIBIBITEBI“ZHEMO”REN。VSHENDESHEJIYIRANSHIHUASHIDAIDE,HENYOUTUPOXING,DUIBITEBISHEJIMUBIAODEXIUGAIYEHENMINGQUE,ZHEISHIZUOQUKUAILIANJISHUYANJIUHESHEJIDERENBIXURENZHENXUEXIDE。

三、我所认识的联盟链

WOJUEDELIANMENGLIANSHIDUIGONGLIANDE“FANSI”,SUOYIGAOLEHENDUOYUESHUSHANGDEDIAOZHENG,ERQIEWUHUABAMEN,ZENMEXIANGDEDOUYOU。CONGGAOJIELINIANDEJIAODU,LIANMENGLIANDEDANSHENGSHIJISHANGYESHIDUISHEHUIXIANSHIDEFANYING,DUICI,WOZONGJIELEYIZHANGTU:

区块链十年:从哪里来,到哪里去

 

 

SHEHUIHUANJINGYIJINGCONGJUYOUJIAOQIANGYIFUGUANXIDEZHONGXINHUAFUSHEZHUANGSHENGTAIJIEGOUZHUJIANYANJINZHIPINGTAIHUA、DUOZHONGXIN、ZIYOUXIEZUODEWANGZHUANGTIXI,YOUQISHIZAIQIYEDUAN,GENJUKANGWEIDINGLV,SHEJIDUIXIANGDEZUZHIJIEGOUHUIYINGSHEDAOQIXITONGJIEGOU,SUOYI,FUHEDUOZHONGXINWANGZHUANGSHENGTAITEDIANDEXITONGJIAGOUBIRANHUIYINGYUNERSHENG。CHUANTONGDEFENBUSHIXITONGQIDANSHENGMUDEZHUYAOSHIWEILETISHENGXITONGXINGNENG,ERQUKUAILIANXITONGZEGENGDUOKAOLVLERUHEBANGZHUYONGHUPINGDENGCANYUWANGLUO,ZHEIYINGGAISHIERZHEZAISHEJILINIANSHANGDEHEXINCHABIE,YINCI,QUKUAILIANXITONGBICHUANTONGDEFENBUSHIXITONGGENGSHIYUDUOFANGGONGYINGSHENGTAIHUANJINGDEGOUJIAN。ZHEIGESHIKANQILAIYOUDIANER“WUXU”,DANSHIYEYOUQIDAOLIDELIANMENGLIANDEJIAZHI。GONGLIANDEWENTIZAIYU,RUGUOXIANJIEDUANYINGYONG,XIANRANBUFUHEQIYEDUANSHENGTAIDESHIJIQINGKUANG,QIYEDUANDESHENGTAIHUANJINGJIBIANNIYIKAISHIMEISHEJIZHONGXINYEHUIZIRANCHANSHENGZHONGXIN,ZHEISHIRENDESHEHUIXINGJUEDINGDE,SUOYIYEBUYAONEIMEPAICHISUOWEIDE“ZHONGXINHUA”,JINGZIZHONGZHAOCHULAIDEWULUNHAOBUHAOKANDOUSHINIZIJI,HUAZHUANGBUJIEJUEBENZHIWENTI。

LIANMENGLIANJIRANMIANXIANGQIYE,ZIRANHUIBATISHENGXIAOLVFANGDAOYIGEHENGAODEYOUXIANJISHANG,YUSHIYOULEYIXIEJIADINGSHANGDEFANGSONG,BIRU,JIEDIANDOUSHISHOUQUANJIARU,SHIJISHANGZHURULEXINREN;YOULEXINREN,GONGSHIFANGMIANKEYIFANGSONG,DOUHUIDAOLECHUANTONGFENBUSHIXITONGDELUXIANSHANG;ZAIJIYUXINREN,CHUKUAISUDUKEDADAOMIAOJI、HAOMIAOJI,BUDANXINZHONGBENCONGKAOLVDECHUANBOGUOKUAICUNZAIDEANQUANWENTI。FANGSONGJIADINGSHANGZUICHEDIDESHIWEIRUANDECoco,JIANGJIEDIANFANGZAIJIYUYINGJIANDEKEXINZHIXINGHUANJINGZHONG,SUOYI,ZHINENGHEYUEBUYONGMEIGEJIEDIANDOUZHIXING,ZHIZHIXINGYICI,JIEGUODAJIAXINREN,GONGSHIYECAIQUJIANDANDEGENSUIJIZHI,SUOYITAHAINENGCHULIBIEDELIANMENGLIANGAOBUDINGDE“BUQUEDINGXINGJISUAN”。LIANMENGLIANDUIGONGLIANZUOLEHENDUODIAOZHENG,YOUDECHEDIYOUDEBUCHEDI,YOUYUDUOSHULIANMENGLIANCUNZAIJIEDIANSHULIANGSHANGXIAN,SUOYI,JIEDIANZAILIANMENGLIANZHONGTONGCHANGDAIBIAOJIEDIANZIJIERFEIWANGLUOCANYUZHE,YOUDIAN“DAILI”DEYISI,YESUANSHIRANGDUIRENDEXINRENZHUANYIDAOLEDUIJIQIDEXINREN,DANSHIBUTONGYUGONGLIANZHEIZHONGJIEDIANWUSHANGXIAN、JIEDIANZHIJIEDAIBIAOCANYUZHEDEJIEGOU,ZHEIZHONGCHABIESHILIANMENGLIANZAIFANGSONGJIADINGZHIHOUFANERBIGONGLIANSHEJI、BUSHUGENGFUZALE,YOUDIANERXIAO“GANGA”。

 

四、我所认识的共识

共识是区块链中炒的很热的概念,甚至会让非技术出身的同学觉得“共识”是区块链发明的。我对共识了解不多,只是根据资料总结了一个共识的发展路径或者说学习路径供大家参考

区块链十年:从哪里来,到哪里去

 

 

GONGSHISHIGAOSHENDESHUXUEWENTI,SHANGTUZHONGCHULEPOS、DPOSZHIWAI,QITADINGLI、GONGSHIDOUYOUHUODEGUOTULINGJIANGHUOZHEXIANGDANGYUZHEIGEJIBIEDEZHUANYESHUXUELUNWENZUOZHICHENG,SUOYIGONGSHIBUSHILINGGUANGZHAXIANDEHAOYONGJIUXING,MEIYOUSHUXUEJICHUZUOZHICHIHENNANBAOZHENGQIKEKAOXING。YANGELAISHUOPOS、DPOSCAISHIZHUANMENWEIQUKUAILIANSHEJIDEGONGSHI,DANSHI,QUEDIANSHIMEIYOUZHENMIDESHUXUELUNZHENG,JINGUANYITAIFANGDEDASHENZHONGYOUHENDUOSHUXUEFANGMIANDEGAOSHOU。

CIWAI,GONGSHIZHEIGECIDUIYEWURENYUANHEJISHURENYUANLAIJIANGSHIYOUHENDAQUBIEDE,YEWUSHANGDEGONGSHITONGCHANGZHIGONGTONGZUNSHOUDEYEWUGUIZEHEYIZHIDEJIEGUO,ERDUIJISHURENYUANLAIJIANGQUESHIGEYUKEYIYUYEWUJIHUMEIYOUGUANXIDEHUATI。

五、我所认识的区块链架构

HUIGULEBITEBI、YITAIFANGHELIANMENGLIANZHIHOU,WOZONGJIELEYIGEWOGERENSHIJIAODEQUKUAILIANYIBANJIAGOU:

区块链十年:从哪里来,到哪里去

 

 

WORENWEIGUANGYIQUKUAILIANDESHEJIZHUYAOBAOKUOSHUJUCENG、WANGLUOCENG、GONGSHICENG、JILICENG、ZHINENGHEYUECENG,DANSHISHIJISHANG,GONGSHICENG、JILICENG、ZHINENGHEYUECENGDOUSHIKEYIXUANDE,BUSHIBIXUYAOYOU,MEIYICENGZHONGJUTIJIZHIYEKEYILINGHUOBIANHUA。WANGLUOCENGSUIRANBIXUAN,DANSHIQIJIZHIQUESHIKEXUANDE。ZUIBUNENGDONGDESHISHUJUCENG,ZHEIYICENGDEKUAILIANSHISHUJUJIEGOUSHITIEDADE,DANYOURENHUISHUOCodarNI?CodarZIJIZHISHUOSHISHOUQUKUAILIANQIFA,CONGLAIMEISHUOZIJISHIQUKUAILIAN。

RUGUOYONGWOMENCHANGYONGDERUANJIANJIAGOUSHIJIAOLAIKAN,YEKEYIZHEIMEZHUANHUANXIA:

区块链十年:从哪里来,到哪里去

 

 

GONGSHIQISHIKEYIFENCHENGYEWUHESHUJUKULIANGBUFEN,QIANZHESHIYEWULUOJIDEGONGSHIYEJIUSHIZHINENGHEYUE,HOUZHESHIJIZHANGQUANGONGSHIYEJIUSHISHUJUXIERUQUAN。KEYIBIJIAOCHUQUKUAILIANXITONGYUYIBANRUANJIANXITONGQISHIZHUYAOCHABIEJIUZAIYUDICENGSHUJUKUDESHIXIANHEYEWULUOJICENGGUANYUDAIBIDESHEJISHANG。ZHEIYESHIWEISHENMEMUQIANJIUSHEJILAIJIANG,CHULESHEJIXUNISHUZIHUOBIDEYINGYONGNANYIYONGCHUANTONGFENBUSHIXITONGTIDAI,ERQITALEIXINGDEQUKUAILIANSHEJIYOUQISHILIANMENGLIANHUANJINGXIADESHEJIJIHUDOUKEYIBEITIDAIDEYUANYIN,TIDAIZHUYAOYEJIUSHIDUISHUJUCENGDETIDAI。

六、我所认识的区块链未来

WEILAIZONGYOUXIEHUANYING,BUSHINEIMERONGYIQUBIANBIEDE,JISHUFAZHANTAIKUAI,WOZHEIZHONG“SANJIAOMAO”DEGONGFUYEBUGANQINGYIJIGESHIXIAN、XIAGEJIELUN,ZHINENGSHUOSHUOFANGXIANGXINGDERENSHI。

GONGLIANJISHUZAIXIAOLVFANGMIANYOUXIEHENFUZADEDONGXI,WOSHUOBUQINGCHU,FENPIAN、L2CENG、ZHUANGTAITONGDAOZHEIXIEHUIJIGONGLIANJINYIBUFUNENGDEJISHUHUOZHESHEJIFANGSHI,YEXUKEYIJIEJUEYIBUFENXIAOLVWENTI,DANSHIZONGTISHANGLAIJIANG,HAIBUNENGDAILAIJUEDINGXINGGAIBIAN。GONGLIANJIEJUE“XINREN”WENTIDEFANGFA,DUOSHAOYOUXIEJIDUAN,SUOYI“XISHENG”LEXIAOLVDEDAFUDUTISHENG。ZAIZHEIGE“PINGJING”GAIBIANZHIQIAN,GONGLIANDEXIAOLVKENENGNANYOUSHIZHIXINGTUPO。

LIANMENGLIANFANGMIAN,QIANBIANTIDAOLEXIAO“GANGA”,JIADINGFANGSONGFANDAOSHEJIMAFANLE,SHIBUSHIGAIHUITOUKANKANGONGLIAN,ZHAODIANERQISHI?MUQIAN,IBMZUICHUDAIQILAIDEKUANGJIAZHIFENGYIJINGGUACHENGLEPINGTAIZHIFENG,PINGTAIGONGNENGYUELAIYUEDUO、YUELAIYUEZHONG,ZAOCHENGLEXUEXI、SHEJI、BUSHU、YUNWEIFANGMIANDEKUNNAN,WEISHENMELIANMENGLIANBUNENGZAIZHURUXINRENZHIHOU,HAINENGJIANGUGONGLIANDEYIBUSHUXINGNI?WOJINQIZAI《XIN“HUITONGTIANXIA”:YONGWENDINGBISHIXIANKUAJINGZHIFUFANGAN》YIWENZHONG,CENGDUIRippleMOSHICHANGSHIJINXINGYIXIEGAIBIAN,RippleSHEJIZHONGDEJIANHUABUSHUHENZHIDEDAJIARENZHENSIKAO,RUGUOYAOZUOPINGTAI,NEIJIUYINGGAIBAMIANXIANGYEWUDEGONGNENGHEMIANXIANGZHANGBENDECUNCHUFENKAIKAOLV,CONGZHEIGEJIAODUJIANG,LIANMENGLIANZHONGDE“LIAN”ZUIZHONGYAODEYINGGAISHIKEXINLIANJIE,ERBUSHISUOWEIDEXITONGDICENG;RUGUOXIANGYAOYIYUTUIGUANG,NEIJIUDEYIYUBUSHU;ERYIYUBUSHUDEQIANTIJIUSHIGONGNENGSHANGYOUSUOSHEQI,BIJINGYOUTAIDUODESHIERBINGBUXUYAOQUKUAILIANQUCHENGDAN,BIRU,ZHINENGHEYUE。ZUIJINVSHENFATUITEBIAOSHILEDUI“ZHINENGHEYUE”ZHEIYIJIAOFADE“YIHAN”,HENDUORENYETUCAOGUOZHINENGHEYUE,NEIJIUJINGLIANMENGLIANSHIFOUZHENDEXUYAOYIGEQIANGDADEZHINENGHEYUE?WOMENWANQUKUAILIANZHENDESHIWEILEZHINENGHEYUE?RUGUOSHUOWOZAIQUKUAILIANSHANGRENSHIBUDAOWEI、“KAIDAOCHE”,NEIJIU“KAIDAOCHE”BA,YEXUXIAYIDAIJISHUZHENDENENGJIEJUEZHEIXIEWENTI,DANGEMINGSHENGLIQIAN,DAJIASHIZHENDEXIANGYONGQUKUAILIANZUOXIENENGGOUYOUJIAODAFANWEI、YOUJIAZHIYINGXIANGDESHEJI,QUZHENGMINGQUKUAILIANDEJIAZHI,HAISHIJIXUZHEIMEBIEBIENIUNIUNI?RUGUOSHIQIANZHE,SHIBUSHIKEYIZHONGXINLIJIEXIAGONGLIAN,LIJIEXIARipple,ZAIKANKANPINGTAISHEJI,YEXUQUKUAILIANBUSHIYONGLAIZUOPINGTAIDE,ERSHIYONGLAIRANGYONGHUXINXI、HEXINXINXIYUPINGTAIFENLIDE,BIRU,YOUKENENGSHIXIABIANZHEIYANGME?

区块链十年:从哪里来,到哪里去

 

 

YONGHUZHIJIANTONGGUOQUKUAILIANXIEYIGONGXIANGBIYAODEZHANGBENXINXI,JIYUQUKUAILIANJIZHIJINXINGSHENFENYANZHENG,JIEJUEKEXINLIANJIE,ERFUZAYEWUGONGNENGDOUSHIYOUPINGTAIGONGNENGCENGFUZEDE,BAOKUOLIANJIEHAILIANGCUNCHUBIXUDEIDC。ZHEIZHONGFANGSHIBIANYUZAIGEYONGHUDEBENDIXITONGZHIJIANXINGCHENGKEXINLIANJIE,BINGDIAOYONGQIANGDADEPINGTAIGONGNENG,DANSHIFENLIKAIQUKUAILIANCENGHEGONGNENGCENG。PINGTAIGONGNENGSHIKEXINDE,DUIYULIANMENGLIANERYAN,JIRANZHURULEXINREN,YOUBUQUXINRENBUSHILANGFEIMA?

LIANMENGLIANDEHENDUOSHEJIBENJIUKEYIBEIFENBUSHIXITONGTIDAIDE,RUGUOTANJIAZHIDEHUA,WOJUEDEHAISHICONGGONGLIANJIZHIZHONGBAOCUNDIANDUIDIANDELIANJIEHEJIAOHUZUIZHONGYAO,ZHEIGEBUSHICHUANTONGFENBUSHIXITONGDESHEJIFANGXIANG,RANGMEIGEJIGOUZHENDESHIZIJICANYUERFEI“DAILI”CANYU,RANGQUKUAILIANZHENDECHENGWEIXIEYIERFEIPINGTAI,YEXUZHEIGECAISHILIANMENGLIANDESHEJIFANGXIANG。

说到未来,还剩下虚拟数字货币这部分,我不是个数字货币的投资者,从我这个无“币”者的角度看,虚拟数字货币即便要在西方广泛流行,也必须依靠与法币的合法兑换以及价值相对稳定的兑换,这也就真的具备了将资产数字化的能力,绝大多数人都是投资者而非投机者。数字货币方面最重要的其实还是法定数字货币,只有法定数字货币实现了,区块链的全球价值网络之梦才会成真,而上图的联盟链形态也将获得更大的价值,所以我才认为,联盟链最重要的是能保持公链中的“真”点对点机制和易部署性。

QUKUAILIANZOUGUOLEJIDANGDESHINIAN,SUIRANLEJIEQIJISHUDERENHAIBUDUO,ZAIKAIFAZHEQUNTIZHONG,QUKUAILIANYIRANSHISHAOSHU,TADEMINGQIGENGDUOHAISHIBEIBITEBIDAIQILAIDE,BIJINGBITEBICHUANGZAOLERENLEILISHISHANGZICHANJIAGESHANGSHENGSUDUZHIZUI,DANSHI,SUOYOUYANJIUQUKUAILIAN、REZHONGQUKUAILIANDEREN,TEBIESHIJISHURENYUAN,DOUBUXIWANGTATINGLIUZAIZHEIGECENGMIAN,DAJIADOUZAIJISHUDEXIANSHIZHUYIZHONGXINSHANGZHEYIDUOLANGMANZHIHUA,QIDAIZHETADESHENGKAI。

免责声明

发文时比特币价格:$7216

当前比特币价格: $48,354.81

当前比特币涨幅: -10.68%

免责声明:

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